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Can Propane Really Freeze? Your Care Guide for Tanks and Lines

You might have heard someone talk about their propane freezing up, but can propane really freeze? Its probably not what you think.

Propane is a versatile fuel people use in homes, businesses, and RVs. However, cold weather can affect its performance. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll explore the science behind propane, its behavior in freezing conditions, and how to ensure your propane supply remains reliable during the winter. Let’s get started. 

A little bit goofy, but this is a good demonstration of what the OPD valve inside a tank looks like and how propane burns with oxygen.

Propane Is a Liquid in a Pressurized Container

Before diving into whether propane can freeze, it’s essential to understand what propane is. Propane, or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), is a hydrocarbon gas that’s stored as a liquid in a pressurized container. It’s a byproduct of natural gas processing and oil refining, making it a readily available and efficient source of energy. It’s typically nontoxic, colorless, and odorless. However, manufacturers add an odor so people can identify leaks. Propane is commonly for heating homes, cooking, grilling, and even powering vehicles due to its clean-burning properties and portability.

Can Propane Tanks Freeze In the Winter? 

The short answer is no; propane tanks won’t freeze solid in the winter. However, they can stop working and people call this “freezing”. Propane remains in a gaseous state under normal atmospheric pressure but becomes a liquid when you compress or cool it. Propane tanks store propane in its liquid form, under pressure. If liquid propane is exposed to temperatures lower than -306.4 degrees Fahrenheit, it will freeze. However, considering this is more than 200 degrees lower than the coldest recorded temperature on Earth, that probably won’t happen soon.

While the propane might not turn to a solid, cold temperatures, do have a significant effect on propane performance. Lets take a look at what actually happens when propane tanks “freeze up”.

Pro Tip: Learn how to prevent your pipes from freezing and what to do if they do.

ice on tank
When propane gets too cold it will turn from gas to liquid.

What Happens to Propane If It Gets Too Cold?

A more relevant concern is for propane to remain in its liquid state if temperatures drop low enough. At -44 degrees Fahrenheit, propane turns from a gaseous state to a liquid. This means that any temperature above -44 degrees causes propane to boil into a gas that you can use. However the colder the tank the slower the boiling and the less gas available to power your appliances.

“Frozen” propane leads to a drop in pressure inside the tank. Lower pressure can affect the performance of propane-powered appliances and may result in reduced heating or cooking capabilities. This can also lead to ice build-up on storage tanks, regulators, and valves. Regulators are perhaps most affected by extremely cold weather. When the liquid propane turns into a gas, it tends to freeze the water vapor around the regulator. This typically isn’t a significant concern for propane users. However, if you’re about to receive a severe cold spell, it’s good to be aware that it may take longer for your propane to turn into a gaseous state. 

Do You Need to Insulate Propane Lines?

The short answer is, no you probably don’t need to insulate propane lines to prevent freeze. As propane moves out of its tank and into the lines, it turns into a gaseous state. The only way it would remain liquid is if the temperature outside is below -44 degrees Fahrenheit. While frozen propane lines are not unheard of, these extreme temperatures are unlikely. If the weather did get this cold, however, your propane lines are likely either underground or lead directly to a warmer area (like the inside of your house or RV). Because of this, your propane lines probably don’t need to be insulated, as it’s extremely unlikely that they’ll be exposed to a consistent -44 degrees and freeze. 

propane tank
Propane tanks are designed to withstand low temperatures.

Do You Need to Heat Your Propane Tank?

In most cases, you do not need to heat your propane tank during the winter. Propane tanks are designed to withstand low temperatures, and the propane inside generates heat as it vaporizes. However, there are situations where insulating or heating the tank may be beneficial. 

For instance, if you live in an area with exceptionally cold winters, you might consider using a propane tank heater or blanket to prevent issues with tank pressure. Moreover, high propane demand in a large home or commercial building during extremely cold weather can cause the tank to cool rapidly. In such cases, a tank heater can help maintain consistent pressure and performance.

While the propane in the tank won’t necessarily freeze, it can be challenging for the tanks to maintain optimal pressure during very cold temperatures. To combat this, you can also ensure your tank is always at least half full. Empty propane tanks have a harder time maintaining pressure, especially smaller ones. 

On a side note, never try to heat your propane tank with anything other than an approved propane heater, like the ones from PowerBlanket. Using hot water, a blowtorch, a space heater, or another heating device can be extremely dangerous and potentially cause an explosion.  

can propane lines freeze
Be sure to keep your propane tanks upright in freezing temperatures so the propane vapor is being drawn from the top.

Can You Use a Propane Tank in Freezing Weather? 

Propane tanks are designed to be used in freezing weather. However, there are some considerations to remember. Always keep your propane tanks upright to ensure that you are drawing propane vapor from the top. This is essential for the correct functioning of appliances and it can be extremely dangerous if liquid propane escapes from the valve. Moreover, ensure the regulator is not frozen. If it freezes, it can restrict propane flow. It might be a sign that liquid propane is flowing through it. 

Suggested Reading: Learn whether you can drive an RV with the furnace running.

can propane tanks freeze
Propane tanks should be stored in well-ventilated outdoor areas when not in use.

How to Properly Store a Propane Tank in the Winter

If you have a propane tank that is not in use during the winter, proper storage is crucial to maintain its safety and functionality. First, always store your propane tanks outside in well-ventilated areas. Never keep propane inside a living space, as it can potentially release dangerous gasses. Always ensure your propane tank is right side up in storage while you’re using it. 

Furthermore, the valve on your propane tank should always be off when not in use and before disconnecting attachments. If the safety features fail, there could be a potential propane leak. 

Last but not least, store your propane tanks in a secure, dry environment away from direct sunlight. Moisture in the area can cause rust and corrosion, which can compromise the tank’s structure. However, direct sunlight can cause excess pressure inside the tank, potentially activating the pressure relief valve. An ideal temperature range for a propane tank is between 120 and -40 degrees Fahrenheit.  

Our Favorite Places To Fill RV Propane Tanks

Always Follow Safety Precautions When Handling Propane

While propane can remain liquid under extremely cold conditions, it’s still a reliable and efficient energy source during even the coldest winters. By taking the necessary precautions like utilizing a tank insulator when necessary and following safety guidelines, you can ensure that your propane supply remains dependable regardless of the weather. Always prioritize safety when dealing with propane, as it can be extremely dangerous when you don’t handle it correctly. As always, don’t hesitate to seek professional assistance when necessary to ensure a warm and comfortable winter season.

Do you insulate your propane tank in the winter? Let us know in the comments below. 

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About Tom Morton

Tom, a Pacific Northwest native, is our technical genius. Born in Washington and raised in Alaska before settling in Michigan. He's the man who keeps our operation running, both figuratively and literally.

With a background in Electrical Engineering, Tom specializes in RV solar systems and lithium batteries. He made history as the first documented individual to use a Tesla battery module as an RV battery. Tom has personally assisted countless RVers with system installations and has educated thousands more through his videos and articles.

Cinematography is another of Tom's passions, showcased in his work on the Go North series. You can see his camera skills on display in The RVers TV show on Discovery Channel and PBS where he also stars as a co-host.

Tom's mechanical expertise extends beyond RVs to boats, planes, and all things mechanical. He's renowned for taking on maintenance and repair projects single-handedly and is often spotted underneath RVs, making him the technical backbone of our endeavors.

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Stephens Herbert G Jr

Monday 6th of November 2023

Your explanation of vaporization is incorrect "the propane inside generates heat as it vaporizes. ". Propane self refrigerates as it vaporizes. i.e. even at temps of -44F, it requires heat to go from a liquid to a gas. It absorbs heat in order to vaporize. Thus when the temp is at or below -44, it cannot absorb any heat from its surroundings. Heat always moves from high temperature to low temperature. With a0 degree difference there is no heat transfer to vaporize the propane liquid. Otherwize a good explanation.