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What Is a Winch? How They Work and Components Explained

What Is a Winch? How They Work and Components Explained

When you spend most of your time on the road or off-roading, there are several tools you need to make your life easier. One that many people rely on in a tight spot is a winch. This versatile piece of equipment mounted to your vehicle is a helpful aid, but what exactly is a winch?

Let’s look at how this device can make overlanding and off-roading safer. Read on!

What Is a Winch?

Broadly speaking, winches are any machine or tool that uses a rope or cable to pull, hoist, or haul. Winches might also have a crank or motor to help turn them. Simply put, it’s a motorized rope or cable that can help pull something heavy.

We use a winch in the front of our truck to assist in recovering ourselves or other vehicles or moving heavy objects from the road.

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Where Are Winches Used? 

Winches tend to be used in places where you’re also dealing with heavy machinery. They’re the ideal tools to hoist heavy materials on construction sites or to pull stuck cars out of tricky situations. Some people use winches while gardening to help remove rocks or large tree roots. In other instances, winches are used for ziplines and outdoor adventure experiences to pull people or objects through the air.

You’ve probably seen winches on the bumpers of off-road vehicles, too. Having a winch when you’re driving on dirt, sand, snow, or rocky terrain can help you get unstuck if you find yourself in a jam.

Winch
Having a winch on hand when RVing is a game changer.

What Does a Winch Do? 

As we’ve already established, a winch is a tool that is used for pulling and lifting. They can be used in a variety of different settings and also come in a wide range of sizes. It’s the go-to tool for pulling cars and off-road trucks out of ditches, lifting heavy materials when other machines aren’t available, and shifting hard-to-reach objects into tight spaces. In some cases, they can also pull objects behind larger vehicles, such as a car or camper.

Our Winch is Located in the bumper with the license plate in front f it. Notice the cable coming out to the right side.

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What Are Examples of Winches? 

With their variety of uses, it stands to reason that there’s also a wide range of winches to choose from. The one you will choose will ultimately depend on your needs, as each function in a unique way. Winches fit into seven major categories: electrical, mechanical drum-style, mechanical capstan-style, hydraulic, mechanical hand-operated, mechanical portable, and hybrid. 

Winches are used in machines ranging from cranes to sailboats. One of the most common places you will see winches however is on the front of vehicles. These are typically electric winches that are controlled from the cab or wirelessly.

XRC Smittybilt
Make pulling and lifting heavy machinery and objects easy with a winch.

How Do You Use a Winch?

Before using a winch, you should stretch the rope that will be doing the hoisting or pulling. This means connecting the rope to a heavy object to pull it taught onto the drum. If you do not stretch the rope or cable it may wind into itself when pulling hard and cause damage.

A winch rope can be unwinded by unlocking the drum and pulling the rope or by running the motor backward. Unlocking the drum is usually a faster way to pull out the rope.

From there, depending on the type of winch you’re using, it’s important to find a sturdy place to anchor the machine. If you’re attaching the rope to a stuck automobile, small trees and rocks aren’t good anchors as they can give way under the vehicle’s weight. 

A larger, more powerful vehicle is a better anchor. A larger vehicle is less likely to cause damage or an accident during the hoisting process. However, a thick, solid tree could be an anchor if no other options exist. 

Its also possible to use a land anchor to dig the winch into soil to pull against if there are no anchor points at all.

Once you have an anchor, fasten the rope or cable around the anchor and connect it to the hoisting cable through a hook and bow shackle. From there, place an air damper around the hoisting cable. This can help control the cable should anything go wrong.

Comily Plus+ Off Road Recovery Winch Weight...
  • 1:MATERIAL:heavy duty reinforced PVC with wide Velcro tabs for...
  • 2:SIZE:17X19Inch(43x49cm) and Net Weight:1.7Lbs(0.75kgs)
  • 3:FEATURES:Stronger, NOT unwieldy and high visibility light...
Jeep winching itself out of snow
Connecting your winch to another vehicle is the safest option when pulling yourself out of a stuck position.

After ensuring everything is in place and secure, you should be ready to go. Most winches will have controls mounted in the cab of the vehicle. Some however are wireless controls to run and change directions.

Winch Components

Now that we know more about what a winch is, let’s break it down mechanically. While winches ultimately serve the same general purpose, you may be surprised to learn the number of options available. 

Rope/Cable 

First, we have the rope or cable. The rope you use depends on the work you’re doing. There are several different categories to choose from when picking out the right rope. Things like size, strength, steel type, and rope core are all factors to consider when picking out the right rope for your needs. The rope or cable will be what you use as an anchor, as well as what is coiled back into the device when the job is done. 

The round part that the rope sits on is called the winch drum.

WARN VR EVO 8
A rope or cable is necessary to assist you while you use your winch.

Gearing 

Next, we have the gearing. The gears are the inner workings of the tool, the parts that the motor turns. Typically, gearing for winches comes in three distinct classes: spur gears, planetary gears, and worm gears. Planetary gears are the most popular gear type. This gear can handle a large load and performs efficiently under intense pressure. However, planetary gears lack a braking method, so you need an external brake. 

Worm gears come with a built-in braking system. Though they may work slower than planetary gears, worm gears are reliable with heavy loads. They can also be reliable in maintaining a safe work environment. Overall, worm gears tend to be stronger than both planetary and spur gears. 

Spur gears are the least common of the gear types. Though they may not have the carrying capacity that comes with worm gears, they are still incredibly efficient. Like planetary gears, spur gears lack a braking system and require an external system to maintain a safe process.  

Close up of winch gears
Winches come with three different types of gear classes.

Motor/Hand Crank

The motor runs the machine. There are two types of electric motors for winches: permanent magnet motors and series-wound motors. Both are DC motors (i.e. they run off of batteries).

Permanent magnet motors are usually for lighter loads. This is due to their propensity to overheat faster than series wound motors. Series wound motors tend to be stronger and more durable for larger loads. While you have several motorized options, there are also manual styles that require a hand-crank. 

Electrical Solenoids and Controls

Solenoids are the motor’s switches. These electromagnetic components turn the motor on and off and change the direction the rope or cable moves in while pulling. They come with either two or four solenoids. The number of solenoids depends on the type of motor the machine has.

For permanent magnet motors, you can expect to find two solenoids. In series-wound motors, you should find four solenoids. This is another reason series-wound motors tend to be stronger and more reliable. The more electricity they receive through the solenoids, the more efficiently the machines can operate.

Winch on a Toyota
Come prepared for your RV trip with a winch in your tool kit.

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How Do Hand Winches Work? 

Hand winches serve as an alternative to their standard electric counterparts. These manual versions are ideal for light loads, in instances where their ratcheting style is preferred, or when electric motors aren’t an option. Due to their size and simplicity, these tools are perfect for on the go. They will fit in smaller spaces for efficient travel.

Hand winches operate on the same general principles as electric ones, with some slight alterations. Instead of using a motor, these hand-held devices maintain the use of the gears mentioned above but allow the user to crank the rope manually through a spool. 

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When Are Winches Useful to Have?

Winches are incredibly helpful tools and can be a valuable asset for life on the road. If this is your first time learning about the tool’s capabilities, it may be time to consider adding one to your collection. Whether it’s pulling a stuck vehicle out of a ditch or maneuvering a car into a tight space, getting your hands on one before your next trip could save you both time and heartache. 

Do you have a winch in your tool kit? Tell us in the comments!

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Tom & Caitlin Morton of Mortons on the Move gave up the stationary life for one where they are constantly on the move. They are full-time travelers, television hosts, and digital media producers.
They left their jobs, sold their house and possessions, and hit the road in September 2015 in their full-time “home on wheels”. Since then they have traveled the US, Canada, and even internationally by RV.
Now, they are Discovery Channel & PBS TV Co-stars of The RVers, producers of “Go North” on Amazon Prime, co-founders and instructors of RV Masterclass, and contributing authors for Hwy.co and an Arizona travel guide.

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